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VITALIK BUTERIN, AMA: Wednesday, February 8 @ 3 pm – 5 pm EST

Vitalik Buterin Live AMA

Vitalik is the creator of Ethereum. He first discovered blockchain and cryptocurrency technologies through Bitcoin in 2011, and was immediately excited by the technology and its potential. He cofounded Bitcoin Magazine in September 2011, and after two and a half years looking at what the existing blockchain technology and applications had to offer, wrote the Ethereum white paper in November 2013. He now leads Ethereum’s research team, working on future versions of the Ethereum protocol.

Website, Twitter, Github

Got a question? Post it below

Wednesday, February 8 @ 3 pm – 5 pm EST


    When did you first have the impression or idea about Ethereum?
    I was working on Mastercoin and colored coins back in 2013; after a few weeks working on the projects I realized how the approach of trying to target a specific set of use cases was too limited, and started trying to make a blockchain that supported more and more general forms of computation. After a few iterations, the idea that is now called Ethereum, at least in a very early form, emerged.
    Have you ever considered putting the ISO 22022 Protocol (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ISO_20022) which is the Global Interbank Financial Telecommunication protocol into Ethereum? Could you? Would you consider doing so?
    Depends what you mean by “putting”. Making it a consensus-layer protocol feature is a bad idea, as it’s not sufficiently general. Writing interfaces and converters to go maximally smoothly from that protocol to ethereum would be more feasible.
    A national TV station last night broadcast the story about Tunisia adopting Bitcoin. In an article (https://dcebrief.com/tunisia-becomes-first-nation-to-put-nations-currency-on-a-blockchain/) mention is made that the blockchian implementation is “sans-mining” as the currency is not actually being created in the implementation. Excerpt from the article “Monetas may be somewhat analogous to ConsensYs in the Bitcoin space. They just partnered with Microsoft in launching a new cloud-based blockchain platform for large financial institutions to use for experimentation with the new technology. Monetas claims to offer notary public-like protection for this new platform’s transactions, and describes a Bitcoin-like system, save for the mining aspect since the currency is not created internally. Gevers goes on to explain what Tunisian’s can expect from the Monetas system in 2016. Gevers says he is working on bringing a similar system to “12 markets”, which may or may not be full nation-states, in 2016, affecting up to 300 million people”. What is the significance of this? Does it address the issue of merging a blockchain into a fiat currency to support transactional settlements for goods and services? If so, how?
    Any short-term implementations of such systems, whether they are in Ecuador, China or Tunisia, are almost certainly not using a blockchain, public or consortium; there is no particular need for them, and the cost and overhead is at this point quite high. What they’re likely doing (and Monetas doesn’t hide this) is basically creating a centralized server that uses blockchain-like cryptography (hashes, Merkle proofs and ZKPs) to add authenticity. This IMO is a genuinely valuable idea, especially in the short term.
    Whats the plan to scale ethereum?
    Sharding was discussed post POS – is this still the case and what is the timeframe?
    Sharding is indeed still the plan. Timeframe is to get to it after Casper 1.0 is out, and it will likely take place in multiple stages, with multiple hardforks to add more and more functionality over time.

    Getting to superquadratic sharding (ie. processing more than O(c^2) tx/sec where c is a node’s computational capacity) seems like a fairly significant barrier; if you can get past that, then you can probably process an exponential number of transactions, but there are weird challenges that arise regarding maintaining the stability at such high levels. So we’ll proceed carefully with plenty of testnets along with way.

    Is Ethereum a scam? Are you a shill for Goldman Sachs? )))
    > Is Ethereum a scam?

    Yes.

    > Are you a shill for Goldman Sachs? )))

    I can’t believe you fall for such fake news you disgusting shill. Morgan Stanley would never dishonor themselves so much as to not outbid Goldman by at least a factor of 2.

    How Ethereum will be governed in future?

    This summer a lot of people were involved in decision making about hardfork.
    We saw the voting of miners and holders.
    Can you call that experience successful and how decision making about Ethereum will be organised in future?

    Should ethereum have a built-in governance structure like dash? If not, why not?
    That’s a complicated question; built-in governance structures have benefits but they also have hidden costs. For example, if you take a Dash/Tezos-style coin voting governance model and enshrine it as a social contract, then you are also creating an expectation that anything that this governance model outputs is legitimate. Expands issuance by 5x and gives it to a coalition consisting of 60% of token holders? Sorry, the 60% voted for it. One guy bribes the voters (note that bribing can take some quite realistic indirect forms, eg. running an online wallet that provides users convenience but votes on their behalf) and makes a change that benefits themselves? Hey, vote results are vote results. So IMO the social contract in any blockchain must necessarily be at least to some extent subjective.

    That said, I am sure that on-chain governance can provide very substantial benefits if it is used carefully and strategically.

    What are the biggest organizational challenges for the Ethereum Foundation this year?
    I would say:

    1. Finding sources of revenue other than our existing ether reserves (no worries, we still have ~$11m worth of ETH on top of our fiat reserves).
    2. Expanding the research team and finding more of the right people to participate in research efforts on all fronts (scalability, privacy, security, etc)
    3. Improving the foundation’s external communications; working on helping the community understand what the foundation is doing, why things are done the way they are done, and what the progress is.

    What about Economist, Marketing – Storytelling, different languages – expansion.

    It is a terrific project, way beyond experimental phase – and still holds so many components of it.

    Has Ethereum evolved in ways that you didn’t initially foresee? How so?

    What are your passions outside of work?

    As a world traveler, what or where is the best place you’ve eaten so far?

    Two questions related to my research on blockchain:

    1. In which ways do you see Ethereum being used for self-governance and self-organization projects in a commons or communities? What kind of pressure do you think this exerts on the way public policy is made?
    2. How/Can you see Ethereum being useful for providing governance services for political institutions like the EU or national governments?

    Any comments on these topics would be really appreciated.

    In the wake of the “notorious” 51% attack – “we got 100 million USD in cash” and we will block any transactions if you do not fork as we wish – to put it in a nutshell –> what possibilities can ETH offer that such a “morality” issues will not occur?
    “we” is a bit confusing in your question.
    My understanding of the situation:
    DAO got the cash – and DAO is managed by Slock.It
    They asked for help from Ethereum foundation, which gathered feedback from the community and decided to hardfork to help.
    ok – i was under the impression that a “let’s call it” Chinese mining “conglomerate” or coalition set this step to press through their commercial interest – I mean the running of the servers is a neccessity. To threaten the computation of “certain” transaction is definetely a no-go.

    From TALC point of view we are still not beyond the chasm. We are close to, maybe on the edge … but any negative impact could be taken up by centralised systems to point their fingers at …

    I’ve heard the rumor that ETC is basically here because one particular mining cartel was worried about ETH upcoming switch to POS so they backed ETC split off as a way to ensure their investment into Ethereum POW mining hardware.
    @dmitry-buterin … what would you say if we could make a coin backed by an uncompromisable, worldwide available physical standard and exchangeable against this standard at any time and in any place.

    I refer to a time (Roman Empire or older) of silver and gold as backing to secure the belief in the value.

    But – what if – we could provide such a standard – of course related with all BlockChain – Smart Contract – etc.. values of the new times.

    I think this would provide THE DOOR OPENER to attract the wide public and masses …

    Edited on February 07, 2017
    The commercial interest of a PoS 51% attacker will be the value of ETH and ecosystem running on that chain. So in that regard rescuing a big project makes sense, censoring things that many users of the system do not perceive as worth censoring does not.
    You mean you want more than the will of the community?! I think you need to read up a bit more about the history of free software, business splits and mergers, free software forks and mergers, how they happen, and why, and what happens to them… it sounds like you don’t understand cryptocurrencies at all. The “guarantee” you are looking for is in the fact that there are so many of them, and the trust you have is in understanding the community, the math and/or code, or trusting someone who does.
    What was the thought process to hard fork after the DAO hack? How did you balance the pros and cons? After 7 months, do you still believe it was the best decision?
    Aloha Vitalik,

    1) What does your average daily Ethereum work schedule/routine consist of?

    2) What non-Ethereum based projects are you most excited about and why?

    3) Do you have any personal heroes or individuals you admire (either related or unrelated to the work you do)?

    I’m greatly moved by your vision for Ethereum’s future. Thank you for contributing to something that aims to empower people from all walks of life around the world.

    Edited on February 07, 2017
    > 1) What does your average daily Ethereum work schedule/routine consist of?

    Some combination of:

    * Thinking about proof of stake problems
    * Coding
    * Talking to other researchers in our team
    * Reading (about some of everything, including math, crypto, economics, developments in the ethereum/blockchain ecosystem)
    * Eating, sleeping, etc

    > 2) What non-Ethereum based projects are you most excited about and why?

    1. Life extension research. IMO the single most important problem facing humanity, and it’s sad that it’s so undervalued.
    2. Decentralization outside of the blockchain space, eg. mesh networking, reputation systems, forms of social organization
    3. Artificial intelligence

    > 3) Do you have any personal heroes or individuals you admire (either related or unrelated to the work you do)?

    Can’t think of a good answer for this.

    > forms of social organization

    I’m doing a lot of work with this (regarding society, more so), over at my subreddit reddit.com/r/sandersinstitution

    > Life extension research

    I think that is a tempting objective, but not a great one. I think a better objective is ‘life advancing’ research.

    Which is to say Humans are trapped within their own shell, say 60 years. Humans who are 60 hold all societal flow (primarily), while humans who are 20 are coming up with the new ideas (and persons of other ages who ‘think young’, however they primarily are young).

    So what happens, and causes conflict, is that the ‘old money’ tries to lock society into a devolved or primitive state, while the new ideas are left in conflict, and often smothered.

    So rather than extending life, which is the perpetuation of a devolved species, it’s best create systems (societies) which increase the velocity of newer models, which has a lot to do with economic modeling and education.

    My usual reply to this is “I’d rather be a slave to bad institutions and thousand-year-old norms than be dead”.

    Also, sometimes it’s the old ideas that are wise and the new ideas that are foolish; see 2016 politics for many great examples. Perhaps having a mixture of 20 year olds, 60 year olds and 260 year olds may actually be healthy for a society and help it have more diverse views and a more long-term perspective.

    > “I’d rather be a slave to bad institutions and thousand-year-old norms than be dead”.

    Is this in reply to a ‘live free or die’ mantra?

    Benjamin Franklin and Aristotle had a very different notion on what it meant to be a revolutionary. To them, politics was a calculable system, in which the systems were poorly designed, leading to the inevitable violence. The output of Violence, itself, was representative of a bug in the code. And thus, as you have violence, you have a flawed piece of software, or societal structure.

    And as with software, you can’t get violent with your code to fix it, nor ignore the errors. Or if you accept buggy code, you get errors for a result. Establishing new code is neither violent, nor disruptive. If a ‘thousand old norms’ do not allow for adaptation, it’s inherently a flawed system which makes violence, by design.

    > old ideas that are wise and the new ideas that are foolish

    There is only one Truth, or wisdom. But there are hundreds, and thousands of wrong answers. Truth is unaltered by time, and thus persons such as Aristotle of 300 BC, are more wise than 99.9% of persons on the planet today. But why?

    Is that because humans have ‘devolved’ or because he was a super human? I would wager not.

    Your child is no more wise than you make him. A child born in 2016 can be taught less sense than that of an ox. Humans are animals, and absorb what you give them. Give them good things, as Aristotle was, and you will have good results. Give them less and you get beasts.

    The long-term perspective is assuming that you will die, and that children will be the future generation. Any other notion is… folly.

    And then your final assumption, is that a person of 260 yrs old may have more intellect than their child, or 20 year old. That is often the case, however it is representative of a poorly managed society. Whenever the young are less developed than the old (which happens very, very often) then you have a failed State.

    People die. Truth is finite but fault unlimited. There are a million ways to fail, which is the function of life. The presumption that you, I, or Aristotle could discover Truths and then maintain and propagate them throughout society, is quite hopeful. It’s way more statistically probable we will only discover better ways to fail.

    Which is to say, that’s likely what happened in the past as well.

    I disagree with your take on the 2016 elections 🙂 or with the presumption that you imply Hillary would have been better. With the presumption that it was the ‘fault of the people’. It was a fault of the machine, or system, and you are in turn blaming the end-users (as you’ve been instructed) for the output. If you were doing that with code, I think we wouldn’t have got this far 🙂

    That said politics is a deep animal. It’s easy to get passionate, but difficult to become wise. Same as blockchain. The passion of supporters and detractors will always outweigh studied and reasoned.

    Anyone of any age, or time, can possess new wisdom, so long as you haven’t heard them and are enlightened enough to know the difference between misdirection and Truth. Netflix has a interesting movie on the subject, “An Honest Liar” – Which addresses the notion of experts who possess great knowledge, but lack wisdom.

    It only takes a little bit of energy beyond that to imagine something, truly impressive 😉

    Outside of financial services, what industries do you favour at the moment where we will see the actualization of dapps beyond POC to real world use cases with scale and commercialization?
    Hi Vitalik, thanks for taking the time to answer questions on this AMA.

    Can you go into some detail as to how Ethereum compares to Hyperledger Fabric? It’s my understanding that Hyperledger is coinless and permissioned and uses PBFT, but what other differences are there? Is Hyperledger really just a subset of functionality (as compared to Ethereum) aimed at enterprise/private networks or is there much more to it and this is just an oversimplification? For enterprise applications, what benefits does Ethereum have over Hyperledger?

    Thanks!

    Hi Deanne,
    Thanks for asking this question. I had the same question for Vitalik.

    Hi Vitalik,
    Could you please share your thoughts in response to Deanne’s question. I had a chance to attend your session in Hyderabad, India. Wondering if you are planning to make another visit to India anytime soon.

    Best!

    In PoS if the block voting is the same as it is currently in PoW (where block creators choose a limit within /1024). Currently the disadvantage with it is that if you set it too high you have a higher uncle rate, however with PoS there appears to be very little risk of setting it high?

    Take this scenario: if it was voted higher and took ~300ms to process on slower machines, but say ~100ms on faster. Say that funds are split 30% fast 70% slow. Say during that time a rival block comes which takes ~100ms slow and ~33ms fast.

    Currently with PoW the second one would obviously propagate faster and would more likely make part of the chain and the other one uncles. However from what I have understood from PoS is that the person who voted on that duncle (not sure if that is the correct in PoS) would also get punished should those fast nodes work on it? Especially if they later switched back to the longer chain, which should always be done in a blockchain.

    This changes the ideal method from working on the chain with the most work, to instead work on the chain with the least transactions / processing time. Which seems fine however take this slight change.

    Is there any way a duncle will be able to penalize someone who votes more than 1 block deep into an opposing chain. Currently uncles only work if it they have the same route and not if they go multiple blocks deep.

    Basically:
    block #1 — block #2 — block #3
    |—– block #1 (uncle #1)
    |—– block #2 (not able to be uncle of past chain because not related directly).

    So are duncles different than uncles and they can apply multiple chains deep to prevent people from voting on sub chains multiple blocks deep? Or are they only to punish those working directly on a competing chain?

    Sorry if very technical I have just been trying to understand more about the duncle and how pow will solve both DoS (huge transaction block size / forcing slow clients off) and the ability to vote multiple chains down, and even back in time attacks (such as manipulating the timestamp so it appears as if that block was created a long time ago to avoid having to pay fees on the main chain because you already withdraw them).

    Thank you!

    What dapps in the Ethereum space are you most interested in and why?

    Which dapps aren’t being built yet that you would like to see?

    What are the biggest technical hurdles Ethereum faces when considering mainstream adoption, and what probability do you see in overcoming them?

    Do you think we will ever see the trend of “consortium” Ethereum adoption by large companies shift to “public” Ethereum adoption, and why?

    Do you have any secret sauce you are working on that has not been made public?

    Do you have any other hobbies such as chess, sports, games etc?

    Do all the ladies follow you around now that you are famous? How often are you recognized randomly in public?

    Hey Vitalik, thank you for taking the time to speak on this AMA.

    What do you think of the current opcode model with them all being a fixed price?

    What do you think about the current gas limit of Ethereum and does it solve the issue Bitcoin is having in your opinion?

    Do you agree that hard forks are the way to the future or do you expect a different method to serve as updates in the future (like soft forks or something new).

    What got you into coding and making Ethereum?

    Do you know if the Ethereum foundation is hiring people right now?

    Thank you again!

    > What do you think of the current opcode model with them all being a fixed price?

    On the one hand, yes, it’s price fixing, and price fixing is bad. On the other hand, I think especially after the DoS attacks, the opcode prices are at present well-balanced, so the gains from trying to come up with fancy market mechanisms to optimize that further are small, and not worth the increases in protocol complexity. The one exception is ratios between costs that are not easily comparable (specifically, storage consumption vs bandwidth vs computation); we still need to think more to figure out the best way to determine the correct tradeoff between the three in-protocol.

    > What do you think about the current gas limit of Ethereum and does it solve the issue Bitcoin is having in your opinion?

    IMO gas limit policy continues to be one of the hardest problems in cryptoeconomics, and NO solution I’ve seen so far (including any fixed block limit, dynamic schedules, no limit or BU) satisfies me. That said, I think our current approach is as good as you can get for a stopgap solution in the meantime.

    > Do you agree that hard forks are the way to the future or do you expect a different method to serve as updates in the future (like soft forks or something new).

    I personally like hard forks. Particularly, I like the fact that they give users a measure of control, requiring them to opt in to protocol changes. Sure, they can be a little more chaotic if they’re controversial, but that’s the price of freedom.

    > What got you into coding and making Ethereum?

    See my other answer above.

    > Do you know if the Ethereum foundation is hiring people right now?

    Depends what kind of people. Researchers, definitely. Developers, depends on the project. Management consultants, no.

    Hi Vitalik, I have some questions if you do not mind.

    When zkSNARKs are added to Ethereum do you think it is going to give a boost to illegitimate / unethical services as it would help keep those transactions hidden?

    What is your opinion on Ethereum clones those which use the same source or even same chain? Plus how far does the trademark go and would the foundation push hard if they make use of the Ethereum name?

    Vitalik thank you for doing an AMA.

    In regards to proof of stake, if there is a portion of the community which is obvious would continue using the old version like what happened in ETC do you still feel it is worth going with it?

    Continuing on that if there was another debate would you take the same position you did with the DAO debate or would you / the foundation more proactively try to push your view.

    Moving away from that do you think that having a community who are happy to hard fork their way out of trouble at any obstacle might prove cumbersome if there was another big event such as a big theft, unethical / illegal contract or simply targeted at harming some people the community did not like.

    Do you prefer projects build upon the public change or do you think that creating a new Ethereum chain for large dapps to avoid cluttering the main chain and incorporating a way to pass data between is better? Or do you believe that sharding will solve this issue?

    > In regards to proof of stake, if there is a portion of the community which is obvious would continue using the old version like what happened in ETC do you still feel it is worth going with it?

    Yep; if needed, let it split and let people choose. But I don’t think that’s likely; I feel like ETC has already absorbed much of the “don’t like proof of stake” crowd.

    > Moving away from that do you think that having a community who are happy to hard fork their way out of trouble at any obstacle might prove cumbersome if there was another big event such as a big theft, unethical / illegal contract or simply targeted at harming some people the community did not like.

    Even if the community is happy about it, hard forking is still hard, and I think people underestimate how difficult it is to hard fork away a hostile set of users or application in practice, especially if the application is actually trying to dodge you. The users can just keep jumping between accounts and contracts and evade forks forever. So I don’t expect it to become a popular ongoing instrument of delivering justice in the long term. Also, Ethereum is highly multijurisdictional, so government attacks on it are quite hard indeed.

    Hi Vitalik, we want a new DAO, and we want to invest in Ethereum (the project) using ETH,
    has Ethereum (the project) thought of issuing any kind of token to represent a share in the Ethereum project ?

    Will Ethereum Foundation implement any of the principles in distributed “anonymous” governance, such as Futarchy, prediction markets, stake-holders consultation using tokens, etc ?

    thanks for doing all this, your articles are excel·lent and your code too.

    Are we going to see Mist browser as in video “Ethereum presents Mist” in Metropolis? And if no, when?

    How much Ether do I need to run a full proof of stake node in the future?

    Is Mist Wallet going to support other altcoins?

    Is Mist going to support Trezor Hardware wallet?

    Dapp development is making good progress. However for me personally indexed data retrieval and storage are still a major barrier for applications and alternative approaches are required. This normally results in centralising the data and access.
    Contracts are for verification and not for storage this is true. However any mechanic where sorted indexed data / search is required is not possible because of the gas cost for most apps. Are there any patterns approaches that you can recommend that are available today to assist a Dapp developer to mitigate this?

    Are there any techniques to snapshot event data and store data on ipfs/swarm but verify on chain that the data is correct therefore front end clients can process events after the snapshot in a verifiable way.

    Edited on February 08, 2017
    What do you think of the TauChain / Ohad Asor approach to the halting-problem / turing completeness ?
    do you think a different logic/math could solve the problem without needing to spend “gas” for running the untrusted code without risking computing resources and still being useful for computation ?
    Decidable programming languages do not remove the need for gas. You always need to charge transaction fees, and charging transaction fees in proportion to the amount of computational steps that are done is simply economically prudent. That said, I think it’s totally possible to get the other benefits of decidable programming languages right on top of ethereum, see http://github.com/ethereum/viper.
    How suited in your opinion is Ethereum for handling more complex business use-cases and use-cases that are not immediately foreseeable compared to other smart contract platforms and how do you keep these in mind when developing the public chain that has different requirements?
    Trump vs. Clinton?
    What do you think about the current power structures in the World? (Media, Hollywood, Corporates, Governments, Banks) How deep do you think corruption has gone in today’s world and is this something you are trying to fight? How hard in your heart?

    Banks: As they exist today, how do you view them or characterize them in your mind? Good or bad? How about the Federal Reserve?

    Edited on February 08, 2017
    Clinton 🙂

    I feel like I’ve been very fortunate over the last few years to have been paying close attention to several parallel situations at the same time: US politics, increasingly Asian politics, the Bitcoin block size debate, and the various issues inside of Ethereum, and I feel like this is increasingly giving me insights about how the world works, and how the world will work no matter who is running it because it arises out of laws of economics and social psychology that apply to everyone.

    Many people, including very early on myself, thought that Bitcoin would somehow liberate us from the foibles of human politics, but the Bitcoin block size wars of the last 2 years have in my opinion proven conclusively that that has utterly not happened at all, and that situation is in fact highly political from all sides. Backdoor negotiations between Bitcoin Core and Chinese miners, sketchy meetings that claim to be open to those from the other side, but where in reality the other side is only invited to fly halfway across the world 36 hours in advance, censorship, all of it is in there. I sometimes find myself visiting the /r/btc and /r/politics subreddit in the morning, and wondering “ok, seriously, which one is crazier today?”.

    What all of this means is that corruption and political squabbling are not something that happens because a particular set of evil bankers is in charge, but rather they are natural results of incentives in large-scale social systems and the way human being respond to them. Solving the problem can thus only be done by changing the underlying institutions. I spend a lot of time thinking about this, but so far I can only tell that the problem is deep and difficult. One sub-problem that I think we can make substantial progress on on a sooner time scale is building tools and institutions for epistemic self-defense – helping people figure out what is true and what is false, even in the face of powerful actors trying to give you a wrong answer or just plain confuse you.

    Are you working with any hardware or communications protocol people – anything interesting that people should get involved with? Do you see it as a risk that most cryptocurrencies depend on TCP/IP?

    Do you see blockchains becoming an integral part of secure computing hardware and/or communications protocols that can exist independently of the internet? Know of anyone I can join who is working on that…?

    At what point will you think that the ethereum project has succeeded? ETHUSD=100? The successful rollout of Casper? Sharding solved? Critical mass of companies choosing it as a platform?
    two questions:
    1) delayed ice bomb and dalayed casper : will metropolis (or other HF) introduce changes about inflation rate before casper ?

    2) POW/POS: before Casper will mixed POW/POS mining system be introduced?

    Edited on February 08, 2017
    Hello Vitalik. Thanks for your responses and for being the way you are 🙂

    Here they are my questions:

    1) Which are the IV (Initialization Vectors) in Ethereum, Bitcoin and ZCash?

    2) Is already available the opcode ‘blackbox’ for inmutable variables?

    3) Personally, do you prefer to play with Serpent or Solidity?

    Cheers!

    Edited on February 08, 2017
    I believe that Ethereum will play a role in building a distributed and decentralized metaverse as mentioned by Tim Sweeney recently.

    “This Metaverse is going to be far more pervasive and powerful than anything else,” Sweeney said. “If one central company gains control of this, they will become more powerful than any government and be a god on Earth. What we want is not a company but a protocol, that anyone can implement.”

    “We can use blockchain as the foundation for e-commerce, for both security and privacy. We could tap something dubbed an “interplanetary file system” for unlimited storage, as it will be distributed via the BitTorrent protocol across all computers and use public key cryptography to keep it private, Sweeney said. We’ll have to define the Metaverse equivalent of a web site, a place that anyone can visit.”

    http://venturebeat.com/2016/12/09/the-deanbeat-epic-boss-tim-sweeney-makes-the-case-for-the-open-metaverse/

    My questions:

    1.) Have you tried the HTC Vive?

    2.) How do you see the creation of the metaverse playing out with regards to Ethereum?

    3.) What do you think about this tweet from Sweeney:
    “We’re gonna need a 60Hz blockchain for distributed persistent gaming.” ???

    https://mobile.twitter.com/timsweeneyepic/status/815139766790483968

    Thanks!

    AMA-Q: What actions should the world’s most influential entrepreneurs be taking in 2017 to leverage the blockchain for positive social good?

    Q2: How can they team up with blockchain experts to bring it mainstream faster?

    Hi!

    I am a software developer and particularly experienced in full stack web development (Angular, Node, etc.)

    How can I use my developer skills to help ethereum?
    Do I need to instead focus on crypto specific software patterns (which seem very algorithmic and computation focused, compared to Web dev).

    (partially to help my investment, and partially because this amazing tech is something I’d love to see become mainstream)

    Thanks!

    Cryptographically secure and decentralized exchanges of data and value, made easily accessible by Ethereum, enables the greatest opportunity to solve our world’s biggest problems, and I thank you for that. Humankind may now redefine business industries and refine social sciences, especially economics.

    Thus, is ‘cryptoeconomics’ decidedly the best term for this ultimate transdisciplinary science? Do you foresee different branches of academia appending ‘cryptoeconomics’ to their curriculum or an entirely new discipline emerging?

    You linked this paper in a recent blog post: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0899825610000394

    I get to page 3 and it started speaking an alien language, by page 7 I had a migraine.

    Applied mathematics or whatever this is doesn’t process well in my head. Gave up cryptography several times too.

    It would be nice to understand these rationales as intricately as you do and perhaps add something that’s considered very substantial to the dialogue.

    Do you approach Ethereum development from outside the realm of mathematical reasoning? is it even possible to do so?

    Vitalik, how do you see Ethereum benefiting from multiple continental and language groups?

    What steps are you taking to ensure a deep supply of future Blockchain developers, decentralizing the brain trust?

    What do you think of a autobiography, decimal point system self-library, or official block chain societies setup locally and federally, and with public training paths shared over BitTorrent, say?

    I am wondering what decentralized applications are available to the public at this moment in time?

    What dapps in the Ethereum space are you most interested in and why?

    Which dapps aren’t being built yet that you would like to see?

    What are the biggest technical hurdles Ethereum faces when considering mainstream adoption, and what probability do you see in overcoming them?

    Do you think we will ever see the trend of “consortium” Ethereum adoption by large companies shift to “public” Ethereum adoption, and why?

    Do you have any secret sauce you are working on that has not been made public?

    Do you have any other hobbies such as chess, sports, games etc?

    Do all the ladies follow you around now that you are famous? How often are you recognized randomly in public?

    Hi Vitalik! Could you give a formal definition of an ERC20 token? Also, when do you plan on the Metropolis hardfork and will Ether conform to this ERC20 token standard?
    In our world, we talk a lot about the pain (and general failures) of KYC… Do you have any thoughts on what good policy in this area would look like?
    What are, if any, some up and coming non-Ethereum DApp development platforms with unique and/or extended functionalities that you think can claim a significant stake in the DApp development platform space?
    I sense that the developer community is pretty disconnected in this still early stage of DApp development and it’s hard to find avenues of collaboration and mentorship (not to mention very small albeit growing quickly as more people learn and find out about Ethereum). What do you think are some solutions to this disconnect in order to accelerate the adoption and creation of DApps & applicable blockchain technology?
    Edited on February 08, 2017
    I’m a non techmicah block chain geek on
    The west coast who is becoming more involved via meetings and I’m excited about my upcoming speaking engagement. What else can be done? The community is sparse.
    Don’t you think you could provide a direct way to hire eth developers on your platform so there could be a good echo system of efficient and competition for developers.
    After POS is implemented…If your optimism on scaling (sharding, LN, etc..) doesn’t pan out, what do you see as the worst case scenario for txs/sec that the network will be able to handle a few years from now? Then, if bitcoin-style gridlock should prevent further algorithmic/software improvements, do you see the maximum transaction rate growing roughly proportionately to improvements in hardware and bandwidth?
    Edited on February 08, 2017
    Hello Vitalik!

    How do you think we can introduce & address blockchain, ethereum & dapps concepts in regions like South America/Latin America?

    We don’t even have almost any law that rules digital transactions, IoT, privacy, data-driven management, digitalization, etc, it’s like a blank paper with lack of technology.

    This region its in the “past” looking to accomplish what other countries have already accomplished year ago. The “future” for Latin American countries are the “past” of the developed countries.

    We need to create our very own & unique decentralized path to build a better future. I think blockchain, ethereum & dapps can help a lot to enhance this region to address real innovation w/transparency & trust.

    🙂

    Edited on February 08, 2017
    Hello Vitalik!

    What do you think of my dual-token PoS blockchain concept that aims to completely decouple rewards from resources (while preserving a sufficient incentive to build blocks)?
    https://medium.com/@cvalkan/decentralized-objective-consensus-without-proof-of-work-a983a0489f0a#.wr04zd7is

    The general idea is to have special accounts (minter accounts) as a second token. In contrast to regular accounts which can be created for free, a minter account pays out interests on its current balance. These accounts cannot be created at will, but are given to the minters who successfully build blocks. Such “child” accounts, having a market value, can then be sold to new owners. As the interests are paid to every minter account (not just the one that creates the block), a single entity has no incentive to own more than one account, while the trade with existing accounts is strongly disincentivized.

    The blockchain is exclusively built by the owners of minter accounts whose number will grow over time. As a consequence, the consensus gets increasingly decentralized and secure. A 51% attacker would not only have to pay a lot of money to get enough accounts, but he would also need to spend a lot of time (in fact, he would have to keep buying child accounts for a period of time corresponding to the current age of the blockchain).

    Furthermore, the economic value represented by the minter accounts allows for an effective punitive scheme to defend against the Nothing-at-Stake issue, without the need of locking up funds forever. Pre-committed hash chain are used for random selection of the next minter and at the same time provide DDoS-resilience.

    And last but not least, the model makes use of “heartbeat” transactions which have to be issued by minter accounts from time to time. These transactions must include a TaPoS-like reference to a recent block of the chain which allows to detect long-range history attacks even if the attacker possesses more than 50% of old account keys.

    Thank you for any kind of feedback.

    Hi Vitalik!

    Can I please invite you and maybe a couple of your friends to do an outdoor fireside chat here in Kansas City? I’d do all the cooking and get a professional film crew to document a very laid back chat. I think it would be fresh and fun. I’m 30 minutes from the KC airport and I be delighted to setup a time to have you come hang out at my humble home. In my day job I’m an elementary school music teacher and DJ on the weekends. I’m 40 years old. I’m happy as a clam for the Ethereum ecosystem and we’ve been mining about 800MH/S 100% since February 2016.

    I’m a very small time guy with a big heart and I represent the “common man” when it comes to blockchain.

    Let me know and thank you! I’ve been following your progress ever since I saw you in “Rise and Rise of BItcoin”.

    Here’s my pit and I have lots of videos about Ethereum on my channel. https://youtu.be/8Zr9KzNOanM

    I hang out on /r/ethtrader mostly.

    Let me know what you want to eat and I’ll prepare the meal as we chat about the future of whatever you want to chat about.

    Etherium Vs Hyperledger Comparision?

    Hi Vitalik,
    I had the opportunity to attend your session in Hyderabad, India. Wondering if you would be visiting India anytime soon again.

    I have a same question asked by Deanne above. Re-posting the same again. If you could please share your thoughts.

    Can you go into some detail as to how Ethereum compares to Hyperledger Fabric? It’s my understanding that Hyperledger is coinless and permissioned and uses PBFT, but what other differences are there? Is Hyperledger really just a subset of functionality (as compared to Ethereum) aimed at enterprise/private networks or is there much more to it and this is just an oversimplification? For enterprise applications, what benefits does Ethereum have over Hyperledger?

    Thanks!