Regarding identity, for example the bitcoin blockchain is pseudonym, meaning that the transactions are publicly associated to addresses (indirectly the public keys), however there is no information associating the address with a real person.

    There are some techniques however that can reveal the real identity behind an address, like different transaction graph analysis.

    The idea is more or less the same overall: protocols as Ehereum care less, protocols as Dash care more to hide the real identity behind a blockchain address.

    Regarding the record keeping part, blockchain is basicaly high available, trustless, hacking and censorship resistent architecture. So, if one realizes record keeping with the help of blockchain, the whole record keeping will be high available, trustless, hacking and censorship resistent by design.